Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in India 2021

Jul-Aug 2019;63-64:106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2019 India. 4 Statistics, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. 5 Division of Biochemistry, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address: bhanu@ninindia.org. Among the study population, the overall prevalence of deficiency of vitamin B 2 was strikingly. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness and increases the risk of death from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is a proven, low-cost intervention[1] which has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality by 12 to 24 per cent[2], and is therefore an important programme in support of efforts to reduce. A multicentre study to assess vitamin A deficiency disorders (Bitot's spot and corneal scars) in 1,64,512 children (< 6 years) and night blindness among 1,13,202 children (24-71 months) from 16 districts of 11 states was carried out during 1997-2000. The prevalence of night blindness among 6,633 pregnant women from 15 districts was also assessed

Prevalence of vitamin deficiencies in an apparently

Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in South Asia: Causes, Outcomes, and Possible Remedies feasible and can be an essential long-term strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency in rural India, and. Heightened awareness of the role of vitamin A in human health has led to an international effort to eliminate vitamin A deficiency and its consequences as a public health problem by the year 2000. This is among the important end-of-decade micronutrient goals endorsed by the World Summit for Children (1990), the International Conference on. Vitamin A deficiency. Policy on Management of Vitamin A Deficiency. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India 1991. 2. Khandait DW, Vasudeo ND, Zodpey SP, Ambadekar NN, Koram MR (1999) Vitamin A intake and xerophthalmia among Indian children. Public Health 113(2): 69-72. 3. Vijayaraghavan K (1994) Vitamin A deficiency. High prevalence of severe ID and associated vitamin B12 and folate deficiency [11] might have precluded the role of iron parameters in predicting the mortality. Further, dysfunctional innate and. Keywords: modern India, calcium and vitamin D deficiency, twin nutrient deficiency, tribal-rural-urban, nutrition time trends, RDA, RDI, strategies Citation: Harinarayan CV and Akhila H (2019) Modern India and the Tale of Twin Nutrient Deficiency-Calcium and Vitamin D-Nutrition Trend Data 50 Years-Retrospect, Introspect, and Prospect

The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in a tropical country like India is as high as 83 -90% where there is abundance of sunshine. Unfortunately, only few medical professionals think why there is leakage of Vitamin D. Others put the patients with high dosage of supplements from 2000 - 10000 IU/day Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin with largely non vegetarian source., Indian population, with largely vegetarian food habit, is more prone to harbour deficiency of vitamin B12., But data documenting vitamin B12 status in India in general population as well as in people with diabetes is limited. Documentation of more data from different parts of country may spark well-informed debate on.

MUMBAI: Almost 70-90 per cent people in the country are vitamin D deficient putting them at risk of having hypertension and diabetes, according to a study. A 2019 pan-India study found that 70-90 per cent of Indians are deficient of the sunshine vitamin, and the deficiency can have adverse consequences for skeletal development in babies and children, and bone health in adults Background Biochemical vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is believed to be a serious public health problem (low serum retinol prevalence >20%) in Indian children, justifying universal high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) Outline • It d ti t Vit i AIntroduction to Vitamin A • Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders (VADD) • Burden of Vitamin A Deficiency- Global and India • Strategy for Prevention and Control of VADD • Millennium Development Goals(MDGs), Copenhagen Consensus • Vitamin A Supplementation Programme in India • Way forward Outline • Introduction to Vitamin A - Historical Milestone

Vitamin A Deficiency in Children - UNICEF DAT

Vitamin A deficiency disorders in 16 districts of India

70-90% Of Indians Are Vitamin D Deficient: Reveals StudyVitamin d deficiency in children

1. Pan Afr Med J. 2019 Sep 17;34:38. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2019.34.38.18936. eCollection 2019. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with type 2 diabetes seen at a referral hospital in Kenya Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin B 12 and folate deficiencies among children residing at high altitude regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methods: A total of 215 school children in the age group of 6-18 y were included. Biochemical estimation of serum vitamin B 12 and folate levels was undertaken using chemiluminescence immunoassay method

Iron-deficiency and vitamin B12-deficiency anaemia are the two common types of anaemia in India. Among women, iron deficiency prevalence is higher than men due to menstrual iron losses and the high iron demands of a growing foetus during pregnancies. Lack of millets in the diet due to overdependence on rice and wheat, insufficient consumption. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD level, ≤15 ng/mL) in the total sample was 24.1%; the prevalence within subgroups is listed in Table 2, with the highest prevalence in African American adolescents compared with other ethnic groups. By using multiple logistic regression based on ethnic-specific rates extrapolated to the US. If a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is identified (>20% prevalence of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) or the risk for vitamin D deficiency is determined to be high based on proxy indicators (e.g., prevalence of rickets >1%), food fortification and/or targeted vitamin D supplementation policies can be implemented to reduce the burden of vitamin D.

Prevalence of clinical and sub clinical vitamin A deficiency in India is among the highest in the world. In the fifties and sixties many of the states reported that blindness due to Vitamin A deficiency was one of the major causes of blindness in children below five years. A five-year long field trial conducted by NIN showed that if massive. Vitamin D. It is the most common nutrient deficiency among the Indian population. The prevalence of this deficiency is about 50 to 90 percent of the global population

The prevalence of this deficiency is around 50 to 90 per cent of the global population. Vitamin A. Deficiency of this vitamin can cause weak eyes and even blindness. A study showed that 73. Government Surveys Micronutrient Deficiency Among Children for the First Time. While malnutrition and under nutrition are old problems in India, there has neither been data nor a specific policy. In the map we see the prevalence of vitamin-A deficiency in children under the age of 5, over the period from 1995 to 2005. Prevalence rates are typically highest across Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, often reaching up to 60-70 percent. The highest prevalence occurs in Kenya, where almost 85 percent of children suffer from vitamin-A deficiency This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin A, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin A.. Introduction. Vitamin A is the name of a group of fat-soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters [].Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication [1,4,5]

(PDF) Vitamin A deficiency in children: Is it still

Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates 2021. Though the full impact of the pandemic will take years to manifest, COVID-19 is expected to exacerbate all forms of malnutrition due to a loss of household income, a lack of available and affordable nutritious food, reduced physical activity and disruptions in essential nutrition services Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%-100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine

Rich, poor, well, or sick-92 percent of the population is suffering from at least one mineral or vitamin deficiency based on the Dietary Reference Intakes. The entire country is overfed and undernourished. Even if you consume a perfect diet, the odds are, something is missing Based on data from NHANES 2003-2006, 6% of the US population (≥6 years) were severely deficient in vitamin C. The prevalence of vitamin C deficiency and low vitamin C concentrations was lower among children ages 6 to 11 years compared to adolescents and adults; greater than 6% of adults ages 20 to 59 years were considered vitamin C deficient. Introduction . Xerophthalmia is a general term applied to all the ocular manifestations from night blindness through complete corneal destruction (keratomalacia) due to vitamin A deficiency. Xerophthalmia is the main contributing factors for childhood blindness in developing countries. However, there is limited evidence that can implicate the current situation Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack of vitamin B12. Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Vitamin B 12 and folate. Vitamin B12 and folate together help the body produce red blood cells

Video: WHO Global prevalence of Vitamin A Deficienc

  1. deficiency, a new study has revealed. Scientists from the Hyderabad-based National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) conducted.
  2. D estimation was performed at baseline and at end of induction chemotherapy. Results: Ninety-three patients were recruited in the study. Majority of them belonged to lower socio-economic status (75.3%), and were from rural background (89.2%). Vita
  3. A deficiency (VAD) or hypovita
  4. D Deficiency in a Multi-Specialty Polyclinic in New Delhi, India, J Arch Mil Med. 2020 ; 8(2):e109716
  5. A can give birth to a disease called night blindness as a result of which the individual is unable to see in the dark
  6. The high prevalence of folate deficiency underlines the need for implementation of preconception folic acid supplementation as part of maternal health services in India. (2019). https://doi.

(PDF) Micronutrient status of Indian populatio

G Bhanuprakash Reddy, Raghu Pullakhandam, Santu Ghosh, Naveen K Boiroju, Shalini Tattari, Avula Laxmaiah, Rajkumar Hemalatha, Umesh Kapil, Harshpal S Sachdev, Anura V Kurpad, Vitamin A deficiency among children younger than 5 y in India: an analysis of national data sets to reflect on the need for vitamin A supplementation, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 113, Issue 4, April. Vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe Vitamin D status has been studied in many European countries in various age groups. Since different studies use different laboratories and different assays, the data should be compared with caution because, as mentioned above, the inter-laboratory variation may be high ( 19 , 23 ) In India, almost all school-going children, up to 74 percent of pregnant women and up to 67 percent of infants are Vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D, also known as the 'sunshine vitamin', is a prohormone as it is produced by the body when exposed to sunlight. It has long been known to help with bone and muscle health Vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets, soft bones, bone pain, and muscle weakness. Previous research, also led by the University of Birmingham, has shown that in babies and children vitamin D deficiency can cause seizures or heart failure as a result of a lack of calcium

Modern India and the Tale of Twin Nutrient Deficiency

  1. D deficiency is rampant among Indians today and contributes heavily to poor bone health
  2. D deficiency : 3.9% (7/180) High prevalence of low serum 25(OH)D levels in 80 -91% infants 2 -24 weeks old. (Seth A & Marwaha RK et al; JPEM 2009,Bhalala et al; Indian Pediatrics 2007) Mean 25 (OH)D=11.55 ±8.3 ng /ml. Similar observation was made when cord blood was used
  3. A obtained from biochemical tests, there is currently a paucity.
  4. A Deficiency in Isolated Geographical Pockets of India. Umesh Kapil and HPS Sachdev* Public Health Nutrition, Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition Unit, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, and *Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, B-16, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi, India
  5. A deficient, one in every third baby has vita
  6. D deficiency has been documented commonly in both urban and rural populations of Indian neonates, infants, adolescents (especially girls) and pregnant women (Reference Sachan, Gupta and Das 1 - Reference Marwaha, Tandon and Reddy 4).In urban Indians, indoor lifestyle and skin pigment.

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains a significant health challenge globally with its overwhelming effects on skeletal growth and varied associations with extra-skeletal diseases. The last decade has reported a high prevalence of VDD in all age-groups across all zones of India. Children and adolescents are most vulnerable to ill-effects of VDD as peak linear growth and bone mass accrual occurs. ABSTRACT. Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency owing to a vegetarian diet is common in India and is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin B 12 deficiency in infants aged 1-12 months and to correlate the results with neurodevelopment.. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 infants aged 1-12 months presenting to the emergency. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of Vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition 2.3.5 Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 7 2.3.6 Classification of vitamin A deficiency as a problem of public health significance 7 2.4 Population covered by survey data, proportion of population, and the number of individuals with vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 8 2.4.1 Population covered India has the highest prevalence of anemia among the 16MM. The prevalence is even higher among Indian women, with around 50% of women having low hemoglobin levels. Numerous studies conducted in India found that poor eating habits (not eating enough fruits, vitamin C, and legumes such as and beans and peas) and lack of access to healthcare are.

(PDF) Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in treatmentComparison between maternal vitamin D levels and baby

Vitamin D is a hot topic that has attracted attention over the past 10 years, especially since a large proportion of people suffer from this nutrient deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is estimated to be about 1 billion people all over the world and 50% in Asia and the Middle East. Saudi Arabia has also demonstrated a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi individuals Vitamin A Deficiency-Related Disorders (VADD) The importance of micronutrients. The most damaging micronutrient deficiencies in the world are the consequence of low dietary intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine and zinc. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is prevalent among the poor whose diets are based mainly on rice or other carbohydrate-rich. *Adequate Intake (AI) Many other countries around the world and some professional societies have somewhat different guidelines for vitamin D intakes [].These differences are a result of an incomplete understanding of the biology and clinical implications of vitamin D, different purposes for the guidelines (e.g., for public health in a healthy population or for clinical practice), and/or the. Vitamin D deficiency is a major health problem in GCC countries including Qatar, indicating its importance as a regional and national health problem (67-71). Vitamin D deficiency affects various age groups and threatens the GCC populations with increased prevalence for chronic diseases such as IBD, cancer, diabetes among others A 2019 pan-India study has found that Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The study authored by PG Talwalkar, Vaishali Deshmukh, M C Deepak and Dinesh Agrawal shows that 84.2 percent of Type 2 diabetes patients and 82.6 percent of hypertension patients were Vitamin D deficient

Vitamin B12 deficiency is endemic in Indian population: A

  1. D deficiency (VDD) has been documented from different parts of India. However, limited data are available on VDD among children residing at high altitude region of country. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of VDD and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 6-18 years in Shimla, Himachal.
  2. D deficiency in thyroid disorders. The references of selected papers are included. There is a higher prevalence of Vita
  3. B-12 concentrations in the US population were reported in the National Health and Nutrition Exa
  4. and
  5. D deficiency, especially in children. Howev-er, the vita
  6. B12 deficiency in the UK, is relatively low, at approximately 6% in individuals aged below 60. This corresponds with Forth's blood test data, although those who are mostly likely to be more susceptible to deficiency are those following a plant based diet at just over 6.5%, whilst men are at the.
  7. A}, title = {www.ijcrar.com Prevalence of vita

Vitamin D deficiency Give me some sunshine: Most Indians

High prevalence of obesity and vitamin D deficiency has been found in Qatari population, according to Qatar Biobank report 2018/19 released yesterday. About 43 percent were found overweight or. Perm J 2019;23:18.241 [Full Citation -Klak et al 7 recommended prompt treatment of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in athletes because of the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic and subacute low back pain patients in India: A triple-arm controlled study. Clin Rheumatol 2018. Since its inception in December of 2019, Sars-CoV-2, Covid-19, has become a worldwide pandemic. there was a high prevalence of low vitamin D levels, even in countries with abundant sunshine. The prevalence of environmental factors like poverty, VAD was higher among boys than girls illiteracy, ignorance, faulty food habits, (21% & 12% respectively). food fads, and even customs contribute significantly to the problem of In India although, severe forms of vitamin micronutrient deficiencies (Indian Council A deficiency (VAD) has. Summary In 2019, Vitamin A deficiency was responsible for 1·18 million (95% UI 0·805-1·64) DALYs globally, including 506 000 DALYs (337 000-720 000) in children under the age of 5.. Definition This cause quantifies total vitamin A deficiency (defined as serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L) and disability from blindness and vision loss due to vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency among children younger than 5 y in

  1. D deficiency, also referred to as hypovita
  2. D deficiency has been reported during pregnancy in The United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, Norway and Saudi Arabia. The low levels also correspond to vita
  3. D deficiency is a global public health issue. About 1 billion people worldwide have vita
  4. B12 deficiency in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metfor
Nutritional Deficiency Diseases In India - Nutrition PicsIllicit drugs: Effects on eye Dhingra D, Kaur S, Ram J7 Warning Signs of Vitamin D Deficiency

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in people with learning

Ophthalmic findings of vitamin A deficiency are a sign of systemic Vitamin A deficiency, which is associated with significantly increased risk of mortality and blindness, especially among pre-school-age children. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with malnutrition, infectious and diarrheal disease, and respiratory illness Pregnant women in India have up to 84 percent prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency, which also correlates with the level of Vitamin D deficiency in their newborns, said Das. In the study conducted on 1,508 individual, researchers said that in Mumbai there is 88 percent prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in urban adults Vitamin D builds strong bones by helping the body absorb calcium 7.This helps protect older adults from osteoporosis 7.; Vitamin D deficiency causes bone diseases, including rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults 7.; Vitamin D helps the immune system resist bacteria and virsues 7.; Vitamin is required for muscle and nerve functions 7.; Available data suggest that vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency( India) 40. Treatment Of Vitamin A deficiency • Vitamin A deficiency should be treated urgently. • Nearly all of the early stages of xerophthalmia can be reversed by administration of a massive dose (200,00Q IU or 110 mg of retinol palmitate) orally on two successive days (30). • All children with.

Every 3rd 40-Plus Indian Suffers From Lack Of LibidoHalf of Chinese adolescents have less than 20 ng of

WHO WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficienc

Vitamin A deficiency is practically unknown in the west, where it is found in most foods. For individuals in developing countries, however, vitamin A is a matter of life or death Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a major public health threat in most countries. The causative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and result in mortality in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D is an immunomodulator hormone with established effectiveness against various upper respiratory infections Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) impairs body functions and may cause death. Adverse health consequences may also include xerophthalmia (dry eyes), susceptibility to infection, stunting, and anaemia (Sommer 1996; Rice 2004). Imdad et al. 2017, Pg 8. 8. WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 2009 Summary In 2019, vitamin A deficiency was responsible for 3·30 million (95% UI 1·35-5·59) DALYs and 23 800 deaths (2670-49 900), including 2·63 million (0·72-4·90) DALYs in children under 5 years. Definition Vitamin A deficiency is defined as serum retinol <0·70 μmol/L and is a risk factor for diarrhoea and measles Some scientific studies claim that vitamin D deficiency is a pandemic.[2] Yet many of us are unaware our vitamin D status may be inadequate. The problem with vitamin D is there are very few good food sources, leaving us very much reliant on sunlight - a factor which is not always guaranteed in the UK

Vitamin D status in Africa is worse than in other

6.Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM.,Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1463-70 7.Panwar A, Valupadas C, Veeramalla M, Vishwas HN.,Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic and subacute low back pain patients in India: a Data on the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies at the national level are limited. 74 Out of seven countries with national data on B12 status (measured using different indicators, including serum vitamin B12, homocysteine, or methylmalonic acid) primarily from the Americas and Europe, five had levels of deficiency greater than 5%. We included 124 children in the study. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in the sample was 57.3%. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was found to be associated with wheezing in the first year of life, personal history of atopic dermatitis, environmental pollution, and vitamin D supplementation until 2 years of age The study found that between 1991 and 2013, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children in low-income and middle-income decreased from 39% to 29%. Prevalence was highest in sub-Sharan Africa (48%) and south Asia (44%) and 95% of deaths related to vitamin A deficiency occurred in these regions

Vitamin D deficiency 2

vitamin D for all ages, diet is a poor source of vitamin D for all ages, (generally 10 - 25%) - found in some fatty fish, added to margarine, breast milk content ~25 IU/L, formula 380 - 520 IU/L Lack of skin exposure to UVB in sunlight Dark skin Conditions/medications affecting D metabolism Infants: maternal deficiency an Levels of 25OHD have been found to be lower in COVID‑19 cases who have been hospitalized. Also, such patients had a higher prevalence of deficiency of Vitamin D. In these unprecedented COVID‑19 times, patients of DR should be advised vitamin D supplementation after monitoring serum vitamin D levels. DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_3798_ Deficiency of vitamin A is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections, and is the world's leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Vitamin A deficiency also contributes to maternal mortality and other poor outcomes of pregnancy and lactation. It also diminishes the ability to fight infections

Distribution of serum 25(OH)D concentrations in males and

Nearly All Adolescents in India Are Malnourished: UNICEF

Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin.When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency, whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency.An underlying disorder may be metabolic - as in a genetic defect for converting tryptophan to niacin - or from lifestyle choices that. In India prevalence of anaemia and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are widespread. National programmes recommend that two tablets of iron and folic acid (IFA) and two tablets of calcium and vitamin D (Ca & Vit D) to be given every day from second trimester till delivery Map - Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (1995 Data) Golden Rice to counter Vitamin A deficiency | UPSC - IAS. Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary.

5. The prevalence of folate deficiency is not as high when compared to vitamin B12 deficiency. However, studies carried out in New Delhi and Maharashtra among preschool children and adolescents have indicated deficiency of around 40 to 60 per cent. Folate along with iron and vitamin B12 plays a key role in formation of red blood cells Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%-100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine The prevalence of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is approximately 6-12% in adults under 60 years old and around 17% in all adults with macrocytic anaemia.1 2 3 However, elderly people, pregnant women, and vegans are more susceptible to B12 deficiency, so have a higher index of suspicion in these populations in the presence of suggestive symptoms. national data on vitamin D status in the U.S. population based on these IOM categories. Results are presented by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and, for women, by pregnancy and lactation status. Keywords: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D • prevalence • deficiency • inadequacy. In 2001-2006, what was the vitamin D status of the U.S Pregnant women in India have up to 84 per cent prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency, which also correlates with the level of Vitamin D deficiency in their newborns, said Srirupa Das, Medical.

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