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OSPF Incremental SPF Feature Information for OSPF Incremental SPF. IP Routing: OSPF Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15SY 6 OSPF Incremental SPF Feature Information for OSPF Incremental SPF. Title: OSPF Incremental SPF Author: Unknown Created Date: 1/19/2017 1:27:40 AM. OSPF Incremental SPF (iSPF) In today's post, we will talk about one very cool feature in OSPF. As you know, OSPF uses the Dijkstra's algorithm to calculate the shortest path tree or SPT and create a topology graph. This topology is then used to populate the routing table The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol can be configured to use an incremental SPF algorithm for calculating the shortest path first routes. Incremental SPF is more efficient than the full SPF algorithm, thereby allowing OSPF to converge faster on a new routing topology in reaction to a network event OSPF: Incremental SPF Every time a topology change occurs the SPF algorithm is run to always produce the best path to a destination, however depending on the location of the topology change SPF will recompute parts of the topology that didn't change

Incremental SPF allows the system to recompute only the affected part of the tree. Recomputing only a portion of the tree rather than the entire tree results in faster OSPF convergence and saves CPU resources. Note that if the change to a Type-1 or Type-2 LSA occurs in the calculating router itself, then the full SPT is performed Pete Welcher at Chesapeake NetCraftsmen (www.netcraftsmen.net) informed me about the benefits of incremental SPF for the link-state protocols OSPF and IS-IS, having read it in Russ White's book, Optimal Routing Design, while studying for his CCDE test. This feature has been around a while, having been added to Cisco IOS 12.0S, but I've not seen it used in production networks Specifically, we are going to discuss Incremental SPF (iSPF), LSA group pacing, and LSA generation/SPF throttling. Before we begin, let's define convergence as the process of restoring the stable view of network after a change, and scalability as the property of the routing protocol to remain stable and well-behaving as the network grows OSPF - Incremental SPF (ISPF)OSPF runs an Shortest Path First calculation to build the shortest path tree (SPT). Since all OSPF routers within an area have..

The runtime could be further reduced using the SPF algorithm optimization know as incremental SPF, which has been developed quite some time ago see [ARPOPT] (notice the year 1980 on the paper and the name of the main author - it's no other than Eric Rosen!) OSPF SPF Scheduling and Throttling; OSPF LSA Throttling; OSPF Incremental SPF; OSPF Prefix Suppression; OSPF Stub Router; OSPF Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) Fast Reroute (FRR) OSPF Remote Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) Fast Reroute (FRR) 3.7: BGP. Introduction to BGP; 3.7a: Neighbor Adjacency. BGP Peer Groups; BGP Neighbor Adjacency States; BGP Messages. OSPF fast convergence speeds up the convergence of routes. It includes the following components: Incremental SPF (I-SPF): recalculates only the routes of the changed nodes rather than all the nodes when the network topology changes, which speeds up route calculation Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is one of the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), which helps to find the best routing path between the source and the destination router using its own shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. It is a Link-state routing protocol that is used to distribute routing information about data packets within a large Autonomous.

One of the improvements several router vendors have incorporated into their SPF procedures is Incremental SPF (iSPF). To understand iSPF, consider the network shown in Figure 8.25. Using the link costs given in the illustration, you can determine with little trouble that R1 will calculate the shortest-path tree shown in Figure 8.26 OSPF and IS-IS are very similar in how they do route calculations. IS-IS used to have a feature called partial route calculation, which was a subset of full SPF calculation, which was a little more efficient on the CPU than OSPF. But nowadays, I think OSPF caught up with incremental SPF feature, so they are again neck and neck The use of Incremental SPF (iSPF) allows to further minimize the amount of calculations needed when partial changes occur in the network (see [TUNING-OSPF]). For example, OSPF Type-1 LSA flooding for a leaf connection does not cause complete SPF re-calculation anymore like it would have been when using classic SPF About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators.

ASR 9000 - OSPF incremental SPF Not for OSPF but XR has it for ISIS Subject: Re: Incremental SPF calculation To: OSPF@PEACH.EASE.LSOFT.COM Precedence: list Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit. Krishna, Read my lips, the main OSPF RFC specifies ECMP.. If you impliment a SPF algorithm then you are out of OSPF RFC compliance. The SPF algorithm was developed by a mathematician (can't spell his name :-) ) and has some. OSPF maintains information about all the networks and running routers in its area. Each time there is a change within the area, all routers need to re-sync their database and then run SPF again. This process makes it more CPU intensive. EIGRP, on the other hand, has triggered and incremental updates Incremental SPF allows the recalculation of the affected area without the overhead caused from full SPF recalculation as long as the affected link is a leaf in the SPT. The result is faster convergence and the reduction of CPU utilization. Configuring ISPF. To configure ISPF use the ispf OSPF process command OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a popular link-state routing protocol. Routers will exchange pieces of information called LSAs (link state advertisement) in order to build a complete topology database which we call the LSDB (link state database)

OSPF Incremental SPF (iSPF) - R&S Journe

Increase OSPF performance and optimization including Graceful restart, LSA/SPF scheduling & Throttling, Incremental SPF, and Prefix suppression; Who Should Take This Course. As OSPF is a widely-deployed routing protocol, this course will appeal to almost any networking engineer Incremental SPF is more efficient than the full SPF algorithm, thereby allowing OSPF to converge faster on a new routing topology in reaction to a network event. So how does this work? OSPF uses Dijkstra's SPF algorithm to compute the shortest path tree (SPT). During the computation of the SPT, the shortest path to eac DC-OSPF is a portable source code implementation of the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protcol designed explicitly to support the scalability, availability and functional requirements of OEMs building devices for next generation networks. DC-ISIS shares Metaswitch's unicast IP routing architecture. It is available for both IPv4 and IPv6 networks

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a popular link-state routing protocol. Routers will exchange pieces of information called LSAs (link state advertisement) in order to build a complete topology database which we call the LSDB (link state database) OSPF uses the same idea behind LSA throttling as it does for SPF throttling. Its intended purpose is to rate limit the amount of times a specific LSA is re-advertised to a network. The functionality behind LSA throttling also relies on three timers: start-interval hold-interval max-interval Once an LSA has not been updated for mor Using show ip ospf command to verify and troubleshoot OSPF. The show ip ospf command is also useful to verify configuration. While most of the output is out of scope of CCNA, a few things such as Router ID, Area related information, and SPF related information is useful. The output from RouterA is shown below

IP Routing: OSPF Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release

R2# %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 1.1.1.1 on OSPF_VL0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done You will see the message above that tells us the virtual link is established. R1# show ip ospf virtual-links Virtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router 192.168.23.2 is up Run as demand circuit DoNotAge LSA allowed OSPF uses LSA messages to notify neighbours of changes. When receiving an LSA, the SPF algorithm begins to run to calculate the best paths. There is a downside to this. SPF runs when the first LSA arrives. So, if there are many LSA's, the algorithm may run, then receive more LSA's, then run again, and so on R3#show ip ospf | i SPF. Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs. Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs. Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs. Incremental. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) that routes packets within a single autonomous system (AS). OSPF uses link-state information to make routing decisions, making route calculations using the shortest-path-first (SPF) algorithm (also referred to as the Dijkstra algorithm). Each router running OSPF floods link-state advertisements throughout the AS or area that contain information about.

OSPF: Incremental SPF - Be The Packets - CCIE Study Blo

Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs Retransmission pacing timer 66 msec OSPF ! Open Shortest Path First ! Link state or SPF technology ! Developed by OSPF working group of IETF (RFC 1247) ! OSPFv2 standard described in RFC2328 ! Designed for: TCP/IP environment Fast convergence Variable-length subnet masks Discontiguous subnets Incremental updates Route authentication By definition, in OSPF, an Area Border Router has at least one interface in Area 0, the backbone area, and another interface in another area. In sh ip ospf, it shows It is an area border router. Incremental-SPF disabled. Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs. LSA group pacing timer 240 secs

Solved: Question about OSPF's incremental SPF - Cisco

iSPF for OSPF and IS-IS - NetCraftsme

  1. g routes. string: Maximum.
  2. C O N T E N T S Configuring OSPF 1 Finding Feature Information 1 Information About OSPF 1 Cisco OSPF Implementation 2 Router Coordination for OSPF 2 Route.
  3. OSPF and Secondary Addresses. Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msec

INE - Experts at Making You an Expert incremental sp

Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs Number of external LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x0174F7 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0. Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs. Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs. Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs. Incremental-SPF disabled. Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs. LSA group pacing timer 240 secs. Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs. Retransmission pacing timer. Incremental SPF is more efficient than the full SPF algorithm, thereby allowing OSPF to converge faster on a new routing topology in reaction to a network event. The incremental SPF is designed in such a way that it only updates the affected nodes without rebuilding the whole tree However, a show ip ospf command results in the following: Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive) Number of interfaces in this area is 3 Additionally, I get nothing if I try to ping 224.0.0.5 or 224.0.0.6 from this router. I've tried restarting the OSPF process on the router as well as rebooting the router itself, but it makes no difference

备战CCDE--OSPF网络设计优化方案 - 知乎

OSPF - Incremental SPF (ISPF) - YouTub

IP Routing: OSPF Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE 17

  1. Also, there is more bandwidth required to run SPF Algorithm. EIGRP, on the other hand, is an enhanced distance vector routing protocol which has triggered and incremental updates. Hence EIGRP is more efficient in terms of CPU, RAM and bandwidth usage as compared to OSPF
  2. Now we are going to look at the OSPF point-to-multipoint network type. This is the topology that we will use: There are a couple of things that you need to be aware of: Automatic neighbor discovery so no need to configure OSPF neighbors yourself. No DR/BDR election since OSPF sees the network as a collection of point-to-point links
  3. muestra información de área OSPF y la última vez que se calculó el algoritmo SPF. R1# show ip ospf Routing Process ospf 1 with ID 192.168.13.1 Start time: 00:20:23.260, Time elapsed: 00:25:08.296 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS) Supports area transit capability Supports NSSA (compatible with RFC 3101) Event-log enabled, Maximum.
  4. Real World Application & Core Knowledge. In Lab 9-1 - Configuring Basic OSPF you learned about Stub area's and their purpose and how they operate. In this lab you will review those concepts and put the technology to use. Think of Stub area's in OSPF a way to simplify an area so that a particular area does not need the full routing table; in which case this conserves router resources
  5. Implementing Layer 3 Access using OSPF • OSPF Area Design • OSPF Stubby and Totally Stubby Distribution Areas • Distribution ABR Route Summarization • SPF and LSA Throttle Tuning • Interface Timer Tuning OSPF Area Design. Although ensuring the maximum availability for a routed OSPF campus design requires the consideration of many factors, the primary factor is how to implement a.

R2# show ip ospf Routing Process ospf 1 with ID 2.2.2.2 Start time: 01:49:34.272, Time elapsed: 02:04:19.324 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS) Supports area transit capability Supports NSSA (compatible with RFC 3101) Event-log enabled, Maximum number of events: 1000, Mode: cyclic It is an area border router Router is not originating. OSPF p O pen S hortest P ath F irst p Link state or SPF technology p Developed by OSPF working group of IETF (RFC 1247) p OSPFv2 standard described in RFC2328 p Designed for: n TCP/IP environment n Fast convergence n Variable-length subnet masks n Discontiguous subnets n Incremental updates n Route authentication p Runs on IP, Protocol 89 OSPF allows each router to be identified by its router ID. the OSPF notation is the same as the IP address. Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs. o Incremental SPF - Definition The ability to recalculate a small portion of the SPF tree, rather than the entire SPF tree, on receiving Manral, et. all [Page 5] INTERNET DRAFT OSPF Benchmarking Terminology March 2003 notification of a change in the network topology OSPF fast convergence is an extended feature of OSPF implemented to speed up the convergence of routes. It includes the following: I-SPF Incremental SPF (I-SPF) recalculates only the routes of the changed nodes rather than all the nodes when the network topology changes. This speeds up the calculation of routes. PRC Partial Route Calculation (PRC)

2. OSPF. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) uses a link-state routing protocol to find theleast-cost path from a source router to a destination router within a group of routersowned by an organization. As shown in Figure 1, a group of routers using the same routingprotocol is collectively referred to as an Autonomous system (AS) OSPF supports the concept of areas to prevent larger routing tables, excessive SPF calculations, and large LSDBs. Only routers within an area share link-state information. This allows OSPF to scale in a hierarchical fashion with all areas that connect to a backbone area CCNPv7 ROUTE Lab 3-1, OSPF Virtual Links Again, the show ip ospf command should used to verify the OSPF router ID. If the OSPF router ID is using a 32-bit value other than the one specified by the router-id command, you can reset the router ID by using the clear ip ospf pid process command and re-verify using the command show ip ospf.d. Verify that this neighbor relationship comes up with the.

OSPF Incremental SPF. Incremental SPF allows OSPF to run SPF not for the entire tree but only for a section. This reduces CPU load and improves convergence times. Zaman.rubd (Mohammad Hasanuz Zaman) October 6, 2017, 1:54pm #2. Hi Rene, Good Day I want to know about convergence after topology change .. Incremental SPF(iSPF) 21 3.6.2. Partial Route Computation(PRC) in ISIS 22 3.6.3. Partial Route Computation(PRC) in OSPFv3 23 3.7. LSA correlation 23 The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is one of the prominent Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) in IP networks today. It is a link state routing protocol tha If we can recall from our OSPF background, OSPF SPF algorithm has design to run upon arrivals of LSAs. So, if each LSA triggers a full or incremental SPF run, and if they are arriving fast, SPF can begin eating up the majority of your CPU Each router in an OSPF network needs a unique ID that is used to provide a unique identity to the OSPF router. The router ID is chosen according to one of the two following criteria: The highest IP address on its loop back interfaces (this is a logical interface on a router

Tuning OSPF Performanc

The use of Incremental SPF allows to further minimize the amount of calculations needed when partial changes occur in the network. OSPF DOWN bit set (to prevent loops in multi-homed sites) = Automatically set in all summary LSA 3 (not in LSA 5) when routes are redistributed from MP-BGP into OSPF R1#show ip ospf Routing Process ospf 1 with ID 192.168.13.1 Start time: 00:01:20.912, Time elapsed: 00:24:17.452 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS) Supports area transit capability It is an area border router Router is not originating router-LSAs with maximum metric Initial SPF. Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs ospf is thinking that its in a standby state, and is basically blocking the ospf. After i did no failover on the ASA the adj formed

OSPF SPF Scheduling and Throttling - NetworkLessons

  1. gling of courses
  2. The CPU processes the neighbor and topology tables using Dijkstra's SPF algorithm. The SPF algorithm is based on the cumulative cost to reach a destination. OSPF Packet Type Specific Data - Contains the OSPF packet type information. The content differs depending on the packet type. A change is perceived (incremental updates) Every 30.
  3. imum holdtime between two consecutive SPF calculations. Similar to the LSA-Hold timer, this timer is used as an incremental value.
  4. Specifying SPF calculation interval. The LSDB changes lead to SPF calculations. When an OSPF network changes frequently, a large amount of network resources will be occupied, reducing the working efficiency of routers. The user can adjust the SPF calculation interval for the network to reduce negative influence
  5. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) = Link State Routing Protocol Each router builds it's own topology database and routing table. On network change: New LSA's are Flooded & all routers recompute their routing table. OSPF Router Types & Locations 1) Internal Router (IR) is inside an area. 2) Backbone Router (BR) has at least on
  6. The SPF algorithm creates an SPF tree by placing each router at the root of the tree and calculating the shortest path to each node. The SPF tree is then used to calculate the best routes. OSPF places the best routes into the forwarding database, which is used to make the routing table

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a link state routing protocol.Because it is an open standard, it is implemented by a variety of network vendors. OSPF will run on most routers that doesn't necessarily have to be Cisco routers (unlike EIGRP which can be run only on Cisco routers) So it's enough just to distribute information about loopbacks, which as typically used as next-hops in BGP / termination points for RSVP-TE tunnels. As Cisco IOS XR can't do it for OSPF, I won't show its configuration here. The third not configurable feature is incremental spf (ispf). In Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) you can configure its timers. For feedback and comments: documentation.feedback@alcatel-lucent.com: OSPF Command Reference. Command Hierarchies Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) [1] is the most commonly used routing protocol in wired and wireless These modern algorithms are based on incremental and selective SPF calculations where algorithm computes new routes to those routers which are affected by the link failure. 4. Significance of timers in OSPF

SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs Area BACKBONE(0) Number of Open Shortest Path First OSPF - Developed by OSPF Working Group of IETF (not proprietary) T1 (1.544 Mbps seral link) 65. E1 (2.048 Mbps serial link). Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol for IP networks. OSPFv2 is defined for IPv4 networks, and OSPFv3 is defined for IPv6 networks. OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, and converges on a new loop-free routing structure very quickly. It computes each route usin a single Autonomous System. The OSPF protocol is based on SPF or link-state technology. This is a departure from the Bellman-Ford base used by traditional internet routing protocols. The OSPF protocol was developed by the OSPF working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force. It has bee It's a matter of opinion. It depends on many factors such as the size of the network, required scalability, etc. Let's learn from the experts: I will highlight bold the main points: > For years I've referred to EIGRP as a consultant's best frien.. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm, developed by Dijkstra, to provide a loop-free topology. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) provides fast convergence with triggered, incremental updates via Link State Advertisements (LSAs)

Fundamentals of OSPF - S1720, S2700, S5700, and S6720

  1. · Control the SPF calculation interval . Benefits. OSPF hub-and-spoke provides the following benefits: It is incremented by incremental-interval × 2n-2 (n is the number of calculation times) each time a calculation occurs, up to the maximum interval. When the SPF calculation internal has reached the maximum value for three times, the.
  2. Dijkstra's algorithm (or Dijkstra's Shortest Path First algorithm, SPF algorithm) is an algorithm for finding the shortest paths between nodes in a graph, which may represent, for example, road networks.It was conceived by computer scientist Edsger W. Dijkstra in 1956 and published three years later.. The algorithm exists in many variants. Dijkstra's original algorithm found the shortest path.
  3. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an adaptive tool to transfer routing information within a single autonomous system (Malik et al., 2012). The main purpose of using OSPF protocol is done where.
  4. OSPF • Open Shortest Path First • Link state or SPF technology • Developed by OSPF working group of IETF (RFC 1247) • OSPFv2 standard described in RFC2328 • Designed for: -TCP/IP environment -Fast convergence -Variable-length subnet masks -Discontiguous subnets -Incremental updates -Route authentication • Runs on IP.
  5. Dijkstra's SPF Algorithm An iterative algorithm • after k iterations, knows shortest path to k nodes spf: a list of nodes whose shortest path is definitively known • initially, spf = {s} where s is the source node • add one node with lowest path cost to spf in each iteration cost[v]: current cost of path from source s to node v • initially, cost[v] = c(s, v) for all nodes v adjacent.
  6. Cisco CCNP ROUTE Open Shortest Path First. Incremental updates, topology data kept within single area. Path selection. Metric based on bandwidth, equal cost load balancing over up to six paths. Cisco CCNP ROUTE OSPF Areas • Identified by a 32 bit field • Manually configure

What is OSPF? How it works? Implementation And

  1. Barcelona#sh ip ospf Routing Process ospf 1 with ID 3.3.3.3 Start time: 00:04:38.244, Time elapsed: 00:53:23.192 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS) Supports area transit capability Router is not originating router-LSAs with maximum metric Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msec
  2. Setting max-interval to 10000 ms provides response equivalent to pre SPF throttle. Recommendation = 5000 ms OSPF Incremental SPF:- Before the introduction of iSPF, Dijkstra Algorithm is run by all the routers whenever there is any state change occurs in the OSPF routing area. This requires lot of CPU and memory and wastes lot of resources
  3. Partial SPF is run on an type3 LSA change as per RFC2328 section 16.5 (Incremental updates -- summary-LSAs). If you run 'debug ip ospf spf' and force a type 3 LSA change you will see something like this (the local router is in area20; the prefix in question is in area 0)
  4. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a popular Interior Gateway Protocol widely used inside large IP routing domains. Recent studies have shown that the time consumed by local SPF computations must be controlled to achieve millisecond convergence time. This paper presents the authors ' experience in measuring and.

Scaling OSPF and IS-IS SPF Enhancements InformI

iSPF - R&S Journe

Definition of OSPF. OSPF (Open Shortest Path first) Further, the incremental updates mean that the router will not send all the information about the network rather just the information that has changed will be shared. On the other hand, OSPF is a link-state routing protocol which resembles a map where the complete information about all the. RFC 2328 OSPF Version 2 April 1998 1.Introduction This document is a specification of the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) TCP/IP internet routing protocol. OSPF is classified as an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). This means that it distributes routing information between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System Sample Scenario. The following network in figure 1 shows a base topology for which OSPF is enabled on all interfaces using network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 OSPF router configuration command. The metric for base topology is set to 10 for all interfaces using ip ospf metric 10 interface configuration command

ISIS vs OSPF - Cisc

first you need to know how the data or routing table shared between many routers. In RIP it follows bellman-ford algorithm In ospf it follows dijkstra algorithm. in RIP it calculate the weight of the link and add the weight into the packet and sen..

400-201: CCIE Service Provider Written Examپروتکل مسیریابی Open Shortest Path First یا OSPF
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